Growth in Field Independence among Taiwanese students
362 Taiwanese school children were randomly divided into 4 groups, one TM group and three control groups: a group in which students were allowed a nap, a group in which students were given no special attention, and a group that practiced contemplation meditation. After 6 to twelve months the TM group showed very significant improvement on 5 different scales of intellectual capability, including Field Independence, in comparison to the 3 control groups. The difference in growth with the control groups was so great and so consistent that the probability of chance was 1 in 25 million, p=.00000004. (what is a p-value?) The TM students also showed significantly reduced stress symptoms.
Reference: Intelligence 29: 419–440, 2001.